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Chemical Properties

Agent PURPLE

A formulation of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T used between 1962 and 1964.

Agent GREEN

Contained 2,4,5-T and was used 1962-1964.

Agent PINK

Contained 2,4,5-T and was used 1962-1964.

Agent ORANGE

A formulation of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T used between 1965 and 1970.

Agent WHITE

A formulation of Picloram and 2,4-D.

Agent BLUE

Contained cacodylic acid.

Super ORANGE

A formualtion of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T used in 1968 and 1969

DINOXOL

A formulation of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Small quantities tested in Vietnam 1962-1964.

TRINOXOL

Contained 2,4,5-T. Small quantities tested in Vietnam 1962-1964.

BROMACIL

Small quantities were tested in Vietnam, 1962-1964.

DIQUAT

Small quantities were tested in Vietnam, 1962-1964.

TANDEX

Small quantities were tested in Vietnam, 1962-1964.

MONURON

Small quantities were tested in Vietnam, 1962-1964.

DIURON

Small quantities were tested in Vietnam, 1962-1964.

DALAPON

Small quantities were tested in Vietnam, 1962-1964.

Reference: http://www.lewispublishing.com/herbs1.htm

 

Summary By Chemical Agent

(Herbicide drums were identified by a 4-inch-wide circular band of paint
colored in correspondence with these color codes.)

CHEMICAL AGENT

TOTAL

GALLONS

PROCURED

BY DOD

TOTAL

GALLONS

USED

PERCENT

OF 

TOTAL

USED

TOTAL

GALLONS

REMAINING

Green

8,208

8,208

0.04%

0

Pink

122,792

122,792

0.6%

0

Purple

145,000

145,000

0.7%

0

Blue

2,166,656

2,166,656

11.2%

0

White

5,600,000

5,239,853

27.0%

360,147

Orange

13,927,985

11,712,860

60.4%

2,215,125

TOTAL:

21,970,641

19,395,369

 

2,575,272


The 15,480 drums of Agent Orange stockpiled at the Naval Construction Battalion Center (NCBC) in Gulfport, Mississippi

were transferred to the Dutch-owned ship the Vulcanus and destroyed between 15-24 and July 1977.

The 24,795 drums of Agent Orange stored on Johnston Island were subsequently incinerated on the Vulcanus in two loads.

The last of the herbicide orange once destined for the jungles of Vietnam burned on September 3, 1977.

 

 

2,4-D

 

Synonyms:

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

Trade Names:

Weedtrine-II, Aqua-Kleen, Barrage, Plantgard, Lawn-Keep, Planotox and Malerbane.

Status:

Still in use. The product carries the DANGER signal word on the label indicating that it is highly toxic.

Organ Toxicity:

Most symptoms disappear within a few days but there is a report of liver dysfunction from long term exposure.

Reference:

http://www.24d.org/

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/24d-captan/24d-ext.html

 

 

2,4,5-T

Synonyms:

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

Acetic acid, (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) 

Trade Names:

Weedone

Status:

The use of 2,4,5-T in the United States has been cancelled since 1985. As of January 1991, all uses were cancelled.

Reference:

http://www.speclab.com/compound/c93765.htm

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/fung-nemat/aceticacid-etridiazole/acetic-acid/acetic-acid-9-92-rereg.html

 

 

Picloram

Synonyms:

4-Amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid

Trade Names:

Grazon and Tordon

Status:

Use is restricted in the U.S. Requires the signal word CAUTION on its label.

Reference:

http://www.speclab.com/compound/c1918021.htm

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/metiram-propoxur/picloram-ext.html

 

 

Cacodylic Acid

Synonyms:

Hydroxydimethylarsine oxide

Trade Names:

Ansar 138, Arsan, Bolls-Eye, Broadside, Check-Mate, Cotton Aide HC, Moncide, Montar, Phytar, Phytar 138,

Phytar 600, Rad-E-Cate 25, Dilic, Silvisar 510, Sylvicor.

Status:

Products containing cacodylic acid must bear the signal word "Caution"

Reference:

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/24d-captan/cacodylic-acid-ext.html

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/herb-growthreg/cacodylic-cymoxanil/cacodylic-acid/herb-prof-cacodylic-acid.html

 

 Trinoxol

Synonyms:

2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid

Hedonal

Trade Names:

 

Status:

 

Reference:

 

 

 

Bromacil

Synonyms:

5-Bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil

Borea

Bromax

Urox 'B'

Trade Names:

Borea, Bromax 4G, Bromax 4L, Borocil, Rout, Cynogan, Uragan, Isocil, Hyvar X, Hyvar XL, Urox B, Urox HX, Krovar.

Status:

Still in use.

Toxicity:

Liquid formulations of bromacil are moderately toxic.

Reference:

http://www.speclab.com/compound/c314409.htm http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/24d-captan/bromacil-ext.html

 

 

Diquat

Synonyms:

1,1'-ethylene-2,2'-dipyridylium

6,7-Dihydrodipyrido[1,2-a:2',1'-c]pyrazinediium

Trade Names:

Aquacide, Dextrone, Reglone, Reglox, Weedtrine-D, Aquakill, Vegetrole, Deiquat, Reglon, Tag.

Status:

Still in use. As a moderately toxic material, containers of diquat bear labels with the signal word, "WARNING"

Toxicity :

Cataract formation is the most significant effect of chronic exposure to diquat that is currently recognized. Poisoning by diquat may affect the liver and kidneys. Dehydration.

Reference:

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/dienochlor-glyphosate/diquat-ext.html http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-soc/diquat.html

 

 

Tandex

Synonyms:

karbutilate

CGA 61837

Trade Names:

 

Status:

 

Reference:

 

 

 

Monuron

Synonyms:

Urea, N'-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-

CMU

1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethylurea

Telvar

Trade Names:

Monurex

Status:

Registration with EPA for use as a herbicide was cancelled in 1977; may still be manufactured for export.

Reference:

http://www.speclab.com/compound/c150685.htm

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/herb-growthreg/fatty-alcohol-monuron/monuron/herb-prof-monuron.html

 

 

Diuron

Synonyms:

3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea

DCMU

Trade Names:

Di-on, Crisuron, Diater, Karmex, and Unidron.

Status:

Still in use.

Reference:

http://www.speclab.com/compound/c330541.htm

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/dienochlor-glyphosate/diuron-ext.html

 

 

Dalapon

Synonyms:

2,2-Dichloropropanoic acid

Trade Names:

Dowpon, Basinex P, Devipon, Gramevin, Kenapon, Liropon, Unipon, Dalapon-Na (Dalapon-Sodium), Revenge, Alatex, Ded-Weed, DPA, Dalacide, Radapon.

Status:

Still in use. Containers of the herbicide must bear labels with the EPA warning word "CAUTION."

Reference:

http://www.speclab.com/compound/c75990.htm http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/dalapon-ext.html

 

Thesis on Agent Orange by Deana Feist

 

 

 

 

 

"If you are able,

save for them a place inside of you and save one backward glance

when you are leaving for the places they can no longer go.

 

Be not ashamed to say you loved them,

though you may or may not have always.

Take what they have taught you with their dying and keep it with your own.

 

And in that time when men decide and feel safe to call the war insane,

take one moment to embrace those gentle heroes you left behind."

 

Major Michael O'Donnell

Killed in action, March 24, 1970-Dak To, Republic of South Vietnam

 

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